Bridges and culverts are important parts of the infrastructure of our civilization. Both provide passage for transportation, usually over running water, and so it is common to confuse them with each other. But various factors, such as length, purpose, the complexity of design, building components, and structure, are the distinguishing elements among bridges and culverts. A bridge is a structure that carries a roadway or railway over a physical obstruction, such as a river, lake, or even another road or railway.
A culvert is a tunnel structure that allows running water to pass under a roadway or railway. Culvert is also useful for water drainage or bridging the gap over a physical obstruction. The purpose of both bridges and culvert is providing a transportation route over obstructions, which is why they may seem the same, but the span length chiefly differentiates between the two structures.
Other factors also set culverts and bridges apart from each other, like terrain and design. Please note that the information in Civiltoday. The information provided should not be used as a substitute for professional services. Cement Hydraulic Cement. Bridge Building Equipment Wall.
Bridge What is a Bridge? Civil Engineering What is Civil Engineering? Disclaimer Please note that the information in Civiltoday. Subscribe Us To get regular update and new article notification please subscribe us. A bridge is a passage of transportation for people or vehicles over a large body of water or physical obstruction. A culvert is generally a tunnel-like structure that allows water to pass under a roadway or railway.
The basic components of a bridge are superstructure supports loadsubstructure transfers load to foundation soil and deck transfers surface load to other components. The components of a culvert are comparatively simpler and include concrete boxes or cells single or multiplepipes, a top deck or slab and supporting parts.
Piers and abutments are the supporting structures of a bridge. Culverts are usually embedded in the soil which bears the major portion of the culvert load. A culvert is an enveloping structure that consists of two sides, a roof, and a floor.
The construction of a strong and deep foundation is very important in building a bridge. The foundation along the entire breadth supports the bridge. No deep foundation is required for a culvert. Culverts are totally enclosed structures that can be semi-circular, rectangular, elliptical or pear-shaped.
The structure and design of a bridge are elaborate and complex, hence its construction requires a substantial budget. Bridges are usually constructed at the site or pre-constructed in smaller parts. Culverts are simpler in structure and design, so it can be constructed with less time and labor. Bridges provide an easier route of transportation that saves time and reduces distance. Culverts prevent water logging, flood, and erosion, and allows water to flow its natural course under a roadway or railway.The process of designing a concrete box culvert falls into five steps:.
The design flow value is usually determined using software which analyzes the flow from streamflow gauges in the area and performs statistical analysis to determine a year, year, etc. Alternately, the runoff can be calculated from rainfall for small or urban drainage basins.
At each streamflow gauge, the water level stage is measured and converted to a discharge value, resulting in a discharge profile over time. It does this using a stage-discharge relationship which is established when the gauge is set up and regularly confirmed with physical measurements as necessary.
Design flow rates are usually determined using the hourly data, where each data point represents the average throughout one hour. But most of the time your project is not located exactly at the streamflow gauge. In this case it is necessary to scale the results according to drainage catchment area, making considerations for topography, land use, and any other factor that might skew the extrapolation. Design flows usually occur in the range of 0.
The lower end of that range is for flat farmland, and the upper is for mountainous terrain. A typical, average drainage basin with slightly rolling hills might be in the range of 0. Once the design flow has been determined, the hydraulics step determines the flow characteristics such as:.
Most Departments of Transportation have standards containing maximum criteria for one or more of these variables. Some typical criteria might include:. You choose a concrete box culvert size, then enter the tailwater the water level if there is no culvert there, determined from same software and then adjust the culvert until the three variables meet the criteria. You can have the boxes standing upright or lying flat, and you can put as many as you want side by side. For precast units, most design engineers make the contractor do the structural design.
This is done using one or more of the following methods:. Finally, the length of the concrete box culvert number of precast sections and layout must be confirmed. Here are a few pointers:. Please feel free to comment and share your thoughts. Notify me of follow-up comments by email. Notify me of new posts by email. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam.
Learn how your comment data is processed. Roseke Engineering Southern Alberta's bridge experts. Southern Alberta's bridge and culvert experts. We are COR Certified! Hydraulics Once the design flow has been determined, the hydraulics step determines the flow characteristics such as: Headwater level Velocity upstream and downstream Head loss Most Departments of Transportation have standards containing maximum criteria for one or more of these variables.
Some typical criteria might include: Headwater is below the culvert crown culvert is not submerged at design flow Maximum velocity is double the stream velocity Maximum head loss is 1 foot. Structural Design For precast units, most design engineers make the contractor do the structural design. The applicable section is Agency Directory Online Services. Sign In. Bridge Manual Standard Drawings. Steel Diaphs.
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Analysis and Design of Box Culvert Using Staad Pro
All - All Chapter 28 Standards.Culvert is a tunnel carrying a stream under a road or railway. A culvert may act as a bridge for traffic to pass on it. They are typically found in a natural flow of water and serves the purpose of a bridge or a current flow controller.
Culverts are available in many and shape like round, elliptical, flat-bottomed, pear-shaped, and box-like constructions. Culverts are by their load and water flow capacities, lifespan and installation of bedding and backfill.
The type is based on a number of factors including hydraulic, upstream elevation, and roadway height and other conditions. Following are the different types of Culvert :.
Pipe culverts are the most common types of culverts due to competitive price and easy installation. They are found in different shapes such as circular, elliptical and pipe arch.
Generally, their shapes depend on site conditions and constraints. Pipe culverts on a small scale represent normal pipes like concrete pipes. Arch culverts are suitable for large waterway opening where fishes can be provided with a greater hydraulic advantage. Moreover, they provide low clearance and are definitely, much artistic. Pipe arches are particularly useful for sites where headroom is limited and also have a hydraulic advantage at low flows.
The most challenging part in constructing a box culvert is that dry surface is needed for installing it.
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However, due to the strength of the concrete floor, water direction can be changed when a large amount of water is expected. This feature makes box culverts, one of the most commonly found types of the culvert. An arch culvert is made up of metal, stone masonry, concrete, RCC etc. Construction does not take a lot of time and unlike box culvert, water diversion is not necessary, as it can be installed without disturbing the water current.
Thus, it can be termed as a Low Profile Culvert. This type of culvert maintains the natural integrity of the wash bed. The advantages of using arch culverts over traditional box culverts and pipe culverts are as follows:. Bridge culverts serve a dual purpose. It acts both as a bridge and a culvert. Generally, rectangular in shape, bridge culverts are constructed on rivers and canals. A foundation is laid under the ground level and pavement surface is laid on top of the series of culverts.
Generally, we can term it as a Multi-Purpose culvert. The metal box culvert is the economic alternative of the bridge. These bridges are manufactured from a standard structural plate or deep-corrugated structural plate. They are the perfect bridge replacement maintaining the same road grade level.In our last post, we were able to establish how we can load box culverts properly.
If you missed the post, kindly follow the link below to read it; Loading and Analysis of Box Culverts to Eurocode 2. In this post, we are going to describe how we can model, load, and analyse box culverts using Staad Pro software. Here is a quick a recap of the properties of the box culvert under consideration.
This means that the width of the box culvert that will be input into Staad Pro is 2. This can be started by forming the nodes in the global XY plane, and then copying and pasting for the length of 8 m in the Z global direction. The output of this operation is as given below. After forming this, the wing walls can also be formed, which is followed by meshing rectangular or polygonal to form the shell of the box culvert.
The final output of the meshing operation is as shown below. A purely rigid approach will involve using fixed supports, but note that employing 3D model for this purpose will not be very appropriate, but a simple 2D frame model will be better. There are many proposals on how culverts can be modelled as 2D frames, and the reader is advised to consult as many publications as possible.
What this model Fig. If you review our previous post, we considered two construction cases. A where the culvert is buried under the soil, and B where is there no earth fill on top of the culvert. When there is no earth fill on the culvert, the traffic load is directly on the top slab of the culvert as tandem loads and as UDL, but when there is earth fill, traffic load is dispersed in the ratio of as UDL on the culvert. We are going to consider 5 load cases in our analysis in this model.
Please note that effects of ground water and the pressure in the shell of the culvert when it is filled with water is an important load case too but was not considered in this post.
We have determined the magnitude of these loads in our previous post, and we are going to apply them on the box culvert for Case A and Case B. A little consideration will show that the top slab is subjected to an ultimate design moment M Ed of For the top slab of the culvert, the M-N interaction chart is given in Fig.
Design Case B: No Earth Fill on Box Culvert 1 Traffic Loads When there is no earth fill on the box culvert, all we have to do is to remove the vertical earth fill load, apply direct traffic load on the top slab, and edit the horizontal earth load from trapezoidal to rectangular.
As a reminder, the nature of Load Model 1 which can be used for global and local verification on the culvert is given in Fig 14 below. The ideal thing is to apply a moving load on Staad after vehicle definition, such that the worst effect can be obtained.
Note that you cannot apply a moving load directly on plate elements on Staad Pro, but you will need to create dummy beam members of negligible stiffness so that the axles can sit on them. In this post, we are not going to bother ourselves with the process, but we are going to treat the wheel load as static.
Influence line has shown that the most onerous bending moment is obtained when the front axle is 0. Therefore, we are going to apply static wheel load at that location.
Remember that it is always recommended to apply the full tandem system of LM1 whenever applicable.
The critical location of wheel load on the box culvert for maximum moment is given in Fig 15 below. Our analysis results have shown that when there is earth fill, the bending moment at ultimate limit state on top of the culvert is about This is about 8.
Thank you for visiting Structville today, and remember to share this post with your friends and colleagues.To browse Academia. Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Paul Tom. Register Number: 13ST17F as the record of the work carried out by him, is accepted as the Practical Training Report submission in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of degree of Master of Technology in Structural Engineering in the Department of Civil Engineering. Head of Department Faculty Advisor Dr.
Katta Venkataramana Dr. My special thanks to Dr.
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Swaminathan, Professor of the Civil Engineering Department for all his help and guidance. I would like to express my deepest sense of respect and indebtedness to my Internship Supervisor, Mr. Sadasivam V. Nisha K. I owe my wholehearted thanks to Mr. Lingarajan K. I also thank the entire staff of the company for their cooperation and assistance during the course of my project. I hope that I can build upon the experience and knowledge that I have gained and make a valuable contribution towards this industry in the coming future.
The structural design wing of this department handles these structures of all Infrastructure Projects. Dead Load 2. Live Load 3. Impact factor due to vehicular live load 4. Vehicle Collision Load 5.
Wind Load 6. Longitudinal forces due to braking 7. Earth Pressure including live load surcharge 8. Temperature Effect 9. Seismic Forces 1. Should also be checked for Class A Loading. Longitudinal moments are calculated in the same way by multiplying reactions with the longitudinal eccentricity which is the distance between the centerline of pier and bearing.
The reaction on each bearing due to girder, diaphragm and deck slab and due to Super- imposed Dead Load, SIDL wearing coat and crash barrier is found out separately. A point worth noting is that STAAD requires the distance to the centerline of the outermost wheel away from the origin along the transverse direction, while during manual calculation of transverse moments the eccentricity of the center of gravity from the centerline of the carriage-way is used.
As per IRC table 2, for a 3 lane, 12m wide carriage-way, 2 critical load combinations are possible. The reactions on each bearing is noted down from the STAAD model for design of pier cap and for the calculation of transverse and longitudinal moments. As per IRC Cl. Rg is the reaction due to dead load Rq is the reaction due to live load Fb is the applied horizontal force due to braking 2.
They are only restrained in the transverse direction. Intermediate values can be interpolated. The lever arm distance to the center of gravity of the considered portion is also determined for calculation of moments. The values for zone factor, importance factor and Response Reduction Factor are given in IRC in tables 6, 7 and 8 respectively.
The value for the Seismic Response Acceleration Coefficient depends on the type of soil and time period of vibration and is given in Cl Longitudinal Seismic forces are taken as zero for dead load due to super structure, SIDL and for live load as the pier being designed has free bearings.Installed quickly with less labor, maintenance-free precast concrete box culvert bridges deliver a long service life.
These eight box culvert designs demonstrate why precast is the best choice for a variety of site conditions. Maintenance and replacement of bridges over small streams are ongoing concerns for transportation agencies responsible for their upkeep.
How to Design a Concrete Box Culvert
In recent years, however, infrastructure funding has not kept up with maintenance needs, and when bridge maintenance is not performed, the structures fall into disrepair.
A decision must be made as to when a bridge needs to be replaced. Should the bridge be replaced in kind, or are there better alternatives? The decision will be based on considerations such as cost, complexity of design, available materials and amount of time the highway is closed to traffic.
Future maintenance should always be a part of the decision-making process. Maintenance-free service and ASTM design assurance Several systems are available for consideration before replacing a bridge. One of the alternative bridge systems to consider is precast concrete box culverts.
They offer a range of sizes and configurations to fit specific site conditions. When properly installed, a precast concrete bridge replacement can provide maintenance-free service for many years. The concrete sits in place year after year and does its job. Design of box culverts is not difficult and is normally performed by the precast manufacturer.
By producing the same product repeatedly, the precast concrete industry can offer reliable, high-quality products. Precast manufacturers are located in most areas of the country, making the product readily available. Competition between producers helps to promote economy of cost. Advantages of precast bridges over CIP installations Replacing a bridge over a stream using a conventional cast-in-place CIP installation can close a road for 10 to 12 months due to the time required for curing concrete on site.
For a typical CIP job, footings must be installed first. After they cure, the pedestals formwork can be made, followed by another concrete pour. After that, more curing time is required to form and place the concrete riding surface. Waiting three to four weeks between pours significantly extends the time required to finish a project.
Precast box culverts are often manufactured before a project is started. In many cases, preparation at the site takes less than one week. Installation of the finished precast box culverts is complete in a matter of days. There are box culvert installations on county roads where the road is closed for only two to three weeks.
Fast installations provide an added advantage in cost savings, because labor hours are kept at a minimum. Design agencies should consult with precasters in the project area to determine their capabilities. Using product sizes that are standard for a producer will normally enable them to provide more efficient pricing for quotes. Design flexibility: The box culvert concept has been modified over the years to solve many job-site problems. Standard rectangular boxes are produced in many combinations of height and width.
ASTM C provides a table for sizes ranging from 3 ft wide by 2 ft high to 12 ft wide by 12 ft high. Other sizes are available and are limited only by the ability of local precasters to adapt their forms.
Many precast concrete box culvert configurations may be used to span crossings that vary from narrow rivulets to fairly wide streams. Advantages of each these structures are usually unique to the job site, installation contractor or precast manufacturer. Here are eight precast box culvert designs:. Single box culvert: One structure, 3 ft to 12 ft wide with wing walls, is installed end-to-end as needed for road width above narrow streams.
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